What are the safety features of the elevator

Date:2016-01-27

Scientifically, elevators are all about energy. To get from the ground to the 18th floor walking up stairs you have to move the weight of your body against the downward-pulling force of gravity. The energy you expend in the process is (mostly) converted into potential energy, so climbing stairs gives an increase in your potential energy (going up) or a decrease in your potential energy (going down). This is an example of the law of conservation of energy in action. You really do have more potential energy at the top of a building than at the bottom, even if it doesn't feel any different.

To a scientist, an elevator is simply a device that increases or decreases a person's potential energy without them needing to supply that energy themselves: the elevator gives you potential energy when you're going up and it takes potential energy from you when you're coming down. In theory, that sounds easy enough: the elevator won't need to use much energy at all because it will always be getting back as much (when it goes down) as it gives out (when it goes up). Unfortunately, it's not quite that simple. If all the elevator had were a simple hoist with a cage passing over a pulley, it would use considerable amounts of energy lifting people up but it would have no way of getting that energy back: the energy would simply be lost to friction in the cables and brakes (disappearing into the air as waste heat) when the people came back down.

The safety brake, together with a speed-sensing governor, acts to stop an elevator if it should overspeed in the down direction. If an elevator overspeeds, the governor makes the safety grasp the rails on which the car travels, bringing the elevator to a safe emergency stop.

The door system on a modern elevator also includes several safety devices. Sensors detect passengers or objects in the door opening, preventing the continued closing of the doors. Older systems use mechanical "safety edges" which cause the doors to stop or retract when they make contact with a person or object. More modern systems use a large number of invisible light rays to detect people or objects in the doorway and reverse or stop the doors without having to make physical contact.

Dependent on the direction the safety lever is pulled upwards or downwards; the movement of the lever is transmitted to the shearing mechanism by means of a rocker. The grip wedges of progressive safety gear or braking device which are linked with the safety-gear levers are released from their rest position between rail and jaw body which is maintained by a spring assembly. The safety-gear lever assembly which is arranged in the form of a shearing mechanism ensures that the progressive safety gears and/or braking device are activated simultaneously and in pairs.

Safety switch is mounted on the bottom transom on the side of the safety-gear. The switch is operated by the movement of the safety-gear lever up or down according to actuation direction if the car travels at over speed. The switch interrupts the safety circuit causing machine drive power off.

A Buffer is a device designed to stop a descending car or counterweight beyond its normal limit and to soften the force with which the elevator runs into the pit during an emergency. They may be of polyurethane or oil type in respect of the rated speed.

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